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Poétique de la danse chez Gluck. : représentation, imitation & expression, une musique européenne au service du geste dans la réforme parisienne (1774-1779).

Abstract : The subject of this thesis is the poetic dimension of dance in Gluck's work, and allows us to bring his lyric production to light from several points of view. From the eighteenth century on, Gluck’s operas have always encountered staging difficulties regarding dance. Sometimes shortened, shifted or completely removed, the dance part call never stop putting us out of breath : Shall we dance ? Which part, which move ? Shall we dance at all ? Thus, his general work raises the question of the posterity or non-posterity of dance ; Gluck’s operas being quite peculiar with their countless reworks and the incorporation of new musical and theatrical perspective methods, especially for the Parisian public. The tragedies of the Parisian Reform (1774-1779) are studied here, through three concepts that allow an aesthetic and historical entry into the field of dance: representation, imitation and expression. Gluck's arrival into Paris' Opera situation is particularly unstable: the lyric tragedy is declining and the Royal Academy of Music is on the brink of bankruptcy. On one hand, the Royal Academy endures a severe directors turnover while facing the insubordination of its dancers due to their wages and conditions of work. On the other hand, artists don’t agree with artistic lines : the styles are in competition between french old lyric tragedy and ballet which feel devoid of dramaturgy and italian opera, representing modernity. Thereby, in this climate of protest — from both artists and audience — Gluck and his collaborator, Noverre, set up new creative habits that redefine the place of the artist. Thus, we approach Chevalier Gluck's works from the collective creation process perspective and by trying to understand how the circulation of ideas is organized in Europe. Paris becomes then a cultural center attracting famous dancers who share their knowledge throughout Europe. The arrival of new performers in Paris, simultaneously with Gluck, leads to the reconsideration of pantomime as a noble quality of dance. The publication of the Encyclopédie is a major, if not the most important, communication tool to share knowledge : philosophy but also the theater reform with the new ideas of Diderot. In fact, the context of the 1770’s brings some change of direction, while revealing a certain conservatism in reaction to the appearance of a new dance style where expressiveness supplants virtuosity. By comparing sources, scores, librettos and writings of philosophes de la danse we identify how Gluck, who created the ballet-pantomime with Angiolini in Vienne, includes the pantomime in his productions. His new and singular approach of mouvement includes popular practice like pantomime to incorporate dance as an element of dramaturgy throught the intervention of choeur en action and pantomime dansée. Gluck’s parisian operas, and more especially his process of creation, haven't set a precedant. Contrary to Rameau, whose philosopher carrer history is distinct from his composer one, Gluck doesn’t give us theoretical work. His reform is purely an experimental work with different integration processes of dance over his productions, successively in: Iphigénie en Aulide, Orphée et Euridice, Alceste, Armide et Iphigénie en Tauride. The composer faces a divided audience, especially concerning the imitative then expressive power of dance. In the midst of the Querelle des Pantomimes, detractors of this dance will repeatedly make meaningless arguments: the dance cannot be an imitative art because "it is necessary to have a soul, and dancers only have feet ". Yet, Gluck establishes poetic license into dance with increasingly distinctive : musicality, entertainments, ballets, pantomimes and choruses. His poetic dimension of dance is based on expressiveness with the ambition to build a unified opera hinged around dramaturgy coherence but also musically speaking through the orchestra, the tone and the recurrence of motif....
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Julie Debellis. Poétique de la danse chez Gluck. : représentation, imitation & expression, une musique européenne au service du geste dans la réforme parisienne (1774-1779).. Art et histoire de l'art. Université de Lyon, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020LYSE2013⟩. ⟨tel-03117729⟩

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