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Mesurer l'enclavement dans les espaces urbains à l'aide d'un système d'information géographique : application aux territoires de la Politique de la ville

Abstract : In France, there is a debate in Urban Policies: are the “zones urbaines sensibles”, underprivileged urban areas benefiting from specific public policies, suffering from geographical isolation ? On the one hand, these areas are perceived in collective representations as “enclaves” where inhabitants are blocked in their district. On the other hand, this isolation is nuanced, even refuted, by many researchers who suggest focusing on the socio-economic factors of exclusion.With an approach in between social sciences and geomatics, this PhD thesis develops a generic method of measuring geographical isolation in urban spaces by using a geographic information system. We aims to question the contribution of geomatics to a debate that until then belong to disciplines such as geography, sociology or planning.We define geographical isolation as a situation of weak potential for contact with otherness, which reduces the exchanges between an entity and the rest of the territory, and causes the severance of its inhabitants. We propose to distinguish three dimensions of geographical isolation: Enclosing, Remoteness and Differentiation. These three dimensions give a frame to our method. Each refers to different fields of research – “community severance” or “barrier effect”, pedestrian mobility, characterization of urban form, accessibility, segregation measure – that we mobilize to construct indicators of geographical isolation.We then apply this method to the “zones urbaines sensibles”. This specific application enables us both to validate our method, by combining known results with other approaches (planning, sociology), and both to contribute to the debate on the geographical isolation of the “zones urbaines sensibles” with a quantitative approach
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Anna Cristofol. Mesurer l'enclavement dans les espaces urbains à l'aide d'un système d'information géographique : application aux territoires de la Politique de la ville. Architecture, aménagement de l'espace. Université Paris-Est, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017PESC1249⟩. ⟨tel-02399540v2⟩

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