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National trends in total cholesterol obscure heterogeneous changes in HDL and non-HDL cholesterol and total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio: a pooled analysis of 458 population-based studies in Asian and Western countries

Cristina Taddei 1 Rod Jackson 2 Bin Zhou 1 Honor Bixby 1 Goodarz Danaei 3 Mariachiara Di Cesare 4 Kari Kuulasmaa 5 Kaveh Hajifathalian 6 James Bentham 7 James E. Bennett 1 Wichai Aekplakorn 8 Renata Cífková 9 Jean Dallongeville 10 Dirk Debacquer 11 Simona Giampaoli 12 Vilmundur Gudnason 13 Young-Ho Khang 14 Tiina Laatikainen 5 Jim I Mann 15 Pedro Marques-Vidal 16 George A Mensah Martina Müller-Nurasyid 17 Toshiharu Ninomiya 18 Janina Petkeviciene Fernando Rodríguez-Artalejo 19, 20 Jennifer Servais Stefan Söderberg 21 Bill Stavreski Tom Wilsgaard 22 Tomasz Zdrojewski 23 Dong Zhao 24 Gretchen A Stevens 25 Stefan Savin 25 Melanie J Cowan 25 Leanne M Riley 25 Majid Ezzati 1 Robert J Adams 26 Wolfgang Ahrens 27 Philippe Amouyel 28 Antoinette Amuzu 29 Sigmund A Anderssen 30 Inger Ariansen 31 Dominique Arveiler 32 Thor Aspelund 33 Juha Auvinen 34 Mária Avdicová 35 Maciej Banach 36 Piotr Bandosz 23 José R Banegas 19 Carlo M Barbagallo 37 Iqbal Bata 38 Louise A Baur 39 Robert Beaglehole 2 Gailute Bernotiene Yufang Bi Asako Bienek 40 Cecilia Björkelund 41 Simona Bo 42 Bernhard O Boehm 43 Marialaura Bonaccio 44 Vanina Bongard 45 Rossana Borchini Herman Borghs Juergen Breckenkamp 46 Hermann Brenner 47 Graziella Bruno 42 Markus A Busch 48 Antonio Cabrera de León 49 Vincenzo Capuano Felipe F Casanueva 50 Juan-Pablo Casas 51 Carmelo A Caserta Laura Censi Fangfang Chen Shuohua Chen María-Dolores Chirlaque 20 Belong Cho 14 Yumi Cho Jerzy Chudek 52 Frank Claessens 53 Janine Clarke Els Clays 11 Cyrus Cooper 54 Simona Costanzo 44 Dominique Cottel 55 Chris Cowell 39 Ana B Crujeiras Liufu Cui Graziella d'Arrigo Luc Dauchet 56 Guy de Backer 11 Dirk de Bacquer 11 Giovanni de Gaetano 44 Stefaan de Henauw 11 Delphine de Smedt 11 Elaine Dennison 54 Valérie Deschamps 57 Augusto Di Castelnuovo Annette J Dobson 58 Chiara Donfrancesco 12 Angela Döring 17 Wojciech Drygas Yong Du 48 Elzbieta Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk 36 Robert Eggertsen 41 Ulf Ekelund 30 Roberto Elosua 59 Johan G Eriksson 5 Alun Evans 60 David Faeh 61 Francisco J Felix-Redondo Daniel Fernández-Bergés Marika Ferrari Jean Ferrières 62 Joseph D Finn 63 Ann-Sofie Forslund 21 Maria Forsner 21 Guillermo Frontera Yuki Fujita 64 Zbigniew Gaciong 65 Fabio Galvano 66 Jingli Gao Manoli Garcia-De-La-Hera 20 Sarah P Garnett 39 Jean-Michel Gaspoz 67 Magda Gasull 20 Louise Gates Francesco Gianfagna 68 Tiffany K Gill 26 Jonathan Giovannelli 56 David Goltzman 69 Marcela Gonzalez Gross 70 Frederic Gottrand 71 Sidsel Graff-Iversen 31 Dušan Grafnetter 72 Ronald D Gregor 38 Tomasz Grodzicki 73 Giuseppe Grosso 66 Grabriella Gruden 42 Dongfeng Gu Pilar Guallar-Castillón 19 Elias F Gudmundsson 13 Idris Guessous 67 Johanna Gunnlaugsdottir 13 Felix Gutzwiller 61 Rebecca Hardy 51 Jun Hata 18 Teresa Haugsgjerd 74 Alison J Hayes 39 Jiang He 75 Yuna He 76 Sauli Herrala 77 Ilpo Tapani Hihtaniemi 1 Michael Hobbs 78 Wilma M Hopman José María Huerta 20 Inge Huybrechts 79 Licia Iacoviello 44 Anna G Iannone Nayu Ikeda Masanori Iwasaki 80 Konrad Jamrozik 26 Imre Janszky 81 Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin 1, 34 Grazyna Jasienska 73 Garry Jennings 13 Seung-Lyeal Jeong Chao Qiang Jiang Michel Joffres 82 Jari J Jokelainen 34 Jost B Jonas Jacek Jóźwiak Eero O Kajantie 5 Jussi Kauhanen 83 Ulrich Keil 84 Sirkka Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi 77 Mathilde Kersting Ursula Kiechl-Kohlendorfer 85 Stefan Kiechl 85 Jeongseon Kim Yeon-Yong Kim Jurate Klumbiene Michael Knoflach 85 Stephanie Ko 40 Elin Kolle 30 Raija Korpelainen 34 Seppo Koskinen 5 Katsuyasu Kouda 64 Wolfgang Kratzer 86 Susi Kriemler 61 Steinar Krokstad 81 Urho M Kujala 87 Pawel Kurjata Tai Hing Lam 88 Vera Lanska 72 Georg Lappas 89 Lars E Laugsand 81 Jeonghee Lee Terho Lehtimäki 90, 91 Yanping Li 3 Christa L Lilly 92 Xu Lin 93 Lars Lind 94 Lauren Lissner 41 Jing Liu 24 Esther Lopez-Garcia 19 Roberto Lorbeer 95 José Eugenio Lozano Dalia Luksiene Annamari Lundqvist 5 Robert Lundqvist Per Lytsy 94 Guansheng Ma 96 Suka Machi 97 Stefania Maggi Dianna J Magliano 98 Enzo Manzato 99 Ellisiv B Mathiesen 22 Stela Mclachlan 100 Rachael M Mclean 15 Scott B Mclean Aline Meirhaeghe 28 Christa Meisinger 17 Patricia Metcalf 2 Jie Mi Jody C Miller 15 Luis A Moreno 101 Suzanne N Morin 69 Malgorzata Mossakowska 102 Maria L Muiesan 103 Jaakko Mursu 83 Harunobu Nakamura 104 Jana Námešná 35 Matthias Nauck 95 Eva Maria Navarrete-Muñoz 20 William A Neal 92 Ilona Nenko 73 Teemu J Niiranen 5, 105 Guang Ning 106 Marianna Noale Sawada Norie Davide Noto 37 Terence O'Neill 63 Dermot O'Reilly 60 Kyungwon Oh Örn Olafsson 13 Fred Michel Paccaud Andrzej Pajak 73 Luigi Palmieri 12 Francesco Panza Winsome R Parnell 15 Markku Peltonen 5 Annette Peters 17 Astrid Petersmann 95 Iris Pigeot 27 Lorenza Pilotto Aleksandra Piwonska Pedro Plans-Rubió Miquel Porta Jacqueline F Price 100 Jardena J Puder 16 Soile E Puhakka 34 Ricardas Radisauskas Olli Raitakari 105 Rafel Ramos Josep Redon Fernando Rigo Maríadelcristo Rodriguez-Perez Dora Romaguera 107 Kimmo Ronkainen Annika Rosengren 108 Joel Roy Jean-Bernard Ruidavets 109 Marcin Rutkowski Benoît Salanave 110 Diego Salmeron 111 Veikko Salomaa 112 Jukkat Salonen Massimo Salvetti Susana Sans Joukol Saramies Kai-Uwe Saum Christa Scheidt-Nave Anja Schienkiewitz Sabine Schipf Carsteno Schmidt Ben Schöttker 47 Sylvain Sebert Abhijit Sen 113 Jonathane Shaw Kenji Shibuya Dong Wookshin Rahman Shiri Judith Simons Leona Simons Michael Sjöström 114 Jolanta Slowikowska-Hilczer 115 Przemyslaw Slusarczyk Vincenzo Solfrizzi 116 Emily Sonestedt 117 Aïcha Soumaré 118 Jana Staessen Mariag Stathopoulou Jostein Steene-Johannessen Peter Stehle 119 Jutta Stieber Doris Stöckl Jakub Stokwiszewski Johan Sundström 120 Paibul Suriyawongpaisal Abdonas Tamosiunas Eng Jootan Anne Taylor Grethe Tell Lutgarde Thijs 121 Hannak Tolonen Roman Topór-Madry María Josétormo Maties Torrent Shoichiro Tsugane 122 Tomi-Pekka Tuomainen 123 Jaakko Tuomilehto 124 Christophe Tzourio 125 Hannu Uusitalo 126 Koen Vanherck Dirk Vanderschueren 127 Diego Vanuzzo Lars Vatten 128 Tomas Vega Giovanni Veronesi Jesús Vioque 129 Jyrkik Virtanen Sophie Visvikis-Siest 130 Peter Vollenweider 131 Sari Voutilainen 132 Martine Vrijheid 133 Aline Wagner 134 Anne Wagner 135 Ming-Dong Wang Qian Wang 136 Ya Xingwang S Goya Wannamethee Wenbin Wei Peterh Whincup Andrzej Wiecek 137 Johann Willeit Peter Willeit 138 Bogdan Wojtyniak 139 Andrew Wong Mark Woodward 140 Aleksander Giwercmanwu Frederickc Wu Shouling Wu Haiquan Xu Liang Xu 141 Weili Yan Xiaoguang Yang Xingwang Ye Akihiro Yoshihara Sabina Zambon Wenhua Zhao 76
117 Nutritional Epidemiology
Department of Clinical Sciences, Clinical Research Center
Abstract : BACKGROUND: Although high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and non-HDL cholesterol have opposite associations with coronary heart disease, multi-country reports of lipid trends only use total cholesterol (TC). Our aim was to compare trends in total, HDL and non-HDL cholesterol and the total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio in Asian and Western countries. METHODS: We pooled 458 population-based studies with 82.1 million participants in 23 Asian and Western countries. We estimated changes in mean total, HDL and non-HDL cholesterol and mean total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio by country, sex and age group. RESULTS: Since ∼1980, mean TC increased in Asian countries. In Japan and South Korea, the TC rise was due to rising HDL cholesterol, which increased by up to 0.17 mmol/L per decade in Japanese women; in China, it was due to rising non-HDL cholesterol. TC declined in Western countries, except in Polish men. The decline was largest in Finland and Norway, at ∼0.4 mmol/L per decade. The decline in TC in most Western countries was the net effect of an increase in HDL cholesterol and a decline in non-HDL cholesterol, with the HDL cholesterol increase largest in New Zealand and Switzerland. Mean total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio declined in Japan, South Korea and most Western countries, by as much as ∼0.7 per decade in Swiss men (equivalent to ∼26% decline in coronary heart disease risk per decade). The ratio increased in China. CONCLUSIONS: HDL cholesterol has risen and the total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio has declined in many Western countries, Japan and South Korea, with only a weak correlation with changes in TC or non-HDL cholesterol.
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Cristina Taddei, Rod Jackson, Bin Zhou, Honor Bixby, Goodarz Danaei, et al.. National trends in total cholesterol obscure heterogeneous changes in HDL and non-HDL cholesterol and total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio: a pooled analysis of 458 population-based studies in Asian and Western countries. International Journal of Epidemiology, Oxford University Press (OUP), 2019, pp.dyz099. ⟨10.1093/ije/dyz099⟩. ⟨hal-02532973⟩

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