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L'entraînement dynamique excentrique dans le cadre de la prise en charge du surpoids et de l'obésité : comparaison à l'entraînement concentrique

Abstract : The treatment of paediatric obesity relies on multidisciplinary interventions, focusing on the association of physical activity and nutritional education. Physical activity researches attempt to identify the best strategies in order to improve the management of obesity. No study had evaluated the impact of moderate load eccentric (ECC) training in subjects with obesity yet. ECC exercise is characterized by a lower metabolic demand for a high level of exerted force. We hypothesized that an ECC training would prove more efficient at reducing FM than a classic concentric (CON) training. The first study, carried out on adolescents with obesity, compared ECC training with CON training performed at the same oxygen consumption ((V)´O2), using a model of ECC training based on ECC versus CON cycling ergometers. The decrease in BMI was similar after the 2 types of training. However, greater adiposity reduction was observed in response to ECC training. Moreover, ECC training bore additional effects on muscle mass, muscle strength, insulin resistance and quality of life. ECC and CON trainings induced a similar increase in bone mineral density. Besides, ECC training might help to prevent the increase in energy intake observed after classical trainings. In addition, the second study carried out on young rats, compared ECC training with CON training with conditions of iso-(V)´O2 and iso-power output (but lower (V)´O2 in ECC). ECC training was based on a model of downhill versus uphill running. The results were concordant with the previous described and highlighted that beneficial gains in body composition could be obtained with iso-power but lower (V)´O2 ECC training. These results appear to be promising in implementing new strategies based on the use of ECC in the management of obesity.
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Submitted on : Saturday, January 2, 2021 - 1:08:03 AM
Last modification on : Tuesday, February 23, 2021 - 3:28:02 PM

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Valérie Julian. L'entraînement dynamique excentrique dans le cadre de la prise en charge du surpoids et de l'obésité : comparaison à l'entraînement concentrique. Education. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020CLFAC002⟩. ⟨tel-03092260⟩

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